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PLANTS Profile


Onopordum acanthium L.
Scotch cottonthistle

Data Source

Last revised by:
USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team
Curated and maintained by:
USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center
 

Data Documentation

Documentation State Type
1963. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters WI Literature
1968. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science AZ Literature
1999. University of Minnesota Herbarium: Vascular plant collection (http://www.wildflowers.umn.edu) MN Literature
2000. CalFlora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation (http://www.calflora.org/). The CalFlora Database, Berkeley CA Literature
Abrams, L. 1960. An illustrated flora of the Pacific States. Stanford University Press, Stanford WA Literature
Assorted authors. State noxious weed lists for 46 states. State agriculture or natural resource departments Literature
Atwood, J.T., et al. 1973. Check list of Vermont plants. Vermont Botanical and Bird Club VT Literature
BLMLK. Specimen at Bureau of Land Management, Lakeview, Oregon, (http://www.blm.gov/or/districts/lakeview/overview.php). OR Specimen
Booth, W.E., and J.C. Wright. 1966. Flora of Montana. Montana State University, Bozeman MT Literature
Brouillet, L., F. Coursol, and M. Favreau. 2006. VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada. Herbier Marie-Victorin, Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Université de Montréal BC, MB, NB, NS, ON, QC Literature
Brown, M.L., and R.G. Brown. 1984. Herbaceous plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc., Baltimore MD Literature
CIC. Specimen at Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell, Idaho, (http://www.collegeofidaho.edu/academics/biology/Resources/handbook/default.asp?mainID=10&subID=4). ID Specimen
California Department of Food and Agriculture. Pest ratings of noxious weed species and noxious weed seed (http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/ipc/weedinfo/winfo_list-pestrating.htm, 20 October 2003). California Department of Food and Agriculture, California Literature
Campbell, J., and M. Medley. 2012. The atlas of vascular plants in Kentucky (http://www.bluegrasswoodland.com) KY Literature
Campbell, Julian. Personal communication KY Literature
Connecticut Invasive Plants Council. Connecticut invasive plant list (ftp://ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/CT/invasives/WordInvasivesListCommonNameW-Authors4PDF.pdf, 20 April 2005). Connecticut Invasive Plants Council, Connecticut Literature
Crovello, T.J., C.A. Keller, and J.T. Kartesz. 1983. The vascular plants of Indiana: A computer based checklist. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame IN Literature
Cullina, M.D., B. Connolly, B. Sorrie, and P. Somers. 2011. The vascular plants of Massachusetts: A county checklist, first revision. Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough MA Literature
Davis, R. 1952. Flora of Idaho. W.C. Brown Co., Dubuque ID Literature
Deam, C.C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Wm.B. Burford Printing Co., Indianapolis IN Literature
District of Columbia Natural Heritage Program DC Literature
Dorn, R.D. 1977. Manual of the vascular plants of Wyoming. 2 vols. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York WY Literature
Dorn, R.D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Mountain West Publishers, Cheyenne MT Literature
Dowhan, J.J. 1979. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of Connecticut (growing without cultivation). State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Natural Resources Center, Department of Environmental Protection. Hartford CT Literature
EOSC. Specimen at Eastern Oregon University, Lagrande, Oregon, (http://mgd.nacse.org/cgi-bin/sqml2.0/eastoregon/eastor.qml). OR Specimen
Eilers, L.J., and D.M. Roosa. 1991. The vascular plants of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City IA Literature
Fisher, T.R. 1988. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 3. Asteraceae. Ohio State University Press, Columbus OH Literature
George, G.G. 1992. A synonymized checklist of the plants found growing in Rhode Island. Rhode Island Wild Plant Society RI Literature
Glenn, S.D. (ed.). 2013. New York Metropolitan Flora database. New York Metropolitan Flora Project, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York CT, NJ, NY Literature
Hartman, R. Atlas of the vascular flora of Wyoming. Unpublished and undated WY Literature
Harvill, A.M., C.E. Stevens, and D.M.E. Ware. 1981. Atlas of the Virginia flora, Part II. Dicotyledons. Virginia Botanical Associates, Farmville VA Literature
Haubrich, G. 2002. Noxious weed spreadsheet. Washington State Department of Agriculture, Olympia WA Literature
Heil, K.D, and S.L. O'Kane, Jr. 2002. Catalog of the Four Corners flora - vascular plants of the San Juan River Drainage: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah, 6th ed. (http://www.sanjuancollege.edu/documents/Herbarium/FourCornersFlora.pdf) AZ Literature
Hickman, J.C. (ed.). 1993. The Jepson manual. University of California Press, Berkeley CA Literature
Hogan, Tim. Personal communication CO Literature
Hough, M.Y. 1978. New Jersey Wild Plants. Harmony Press, Harmony NJ Literature
Hrusa, G.F. 2003. Noxious weeds data. Unpublished CA Literature
Hutchens, Robert. Personal communication NM Literature
ID. Specimen at University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, (http://www.sci.uidaho.edu/biosci/herbarium/vtour.html). ID Specimen
INVADERS database (http://invader.dbs.umt.edu/) ID, MT, OR, WY Literature
Idaho Department of Agriculture. Noxious weed rules (http://www.agri.state.id.us/Categories/PlantsInsects/NoxiousWeeds/watchlistsci.php, 24 May 2006). Idaho Department of Agriculture, Idaho Literature
Johnston, B. 1991. List of Colorado plants. Unpublished CO Literature
Kartesz, J.T. 1988. A flora of Nevada. University of Nevada, Reno NV Literature
Kartesz, J.T. 2001. Atlas of the Nevada flora. Unpublished NV Literature
Lee, R.D. 1999. New Mexico's invasive weeds. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces NM Literature
Lehr, J.H. 1978. A catalogue of the flora of Arizona. Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix AZ Literature
Magee, D. Flora of New England. Unpublished and undated CT, MA, NY, RI, VT Literature
McGregor, R.L., et al. 1977. Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains. Iowa State University Press, Ames KS, NE Literature
McGregor, R.L., et al. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence OK Literature
Medley, M.E. 1993. An annotated catalogue of the known or reported vascular flora of Kentucky. University of Louisville, Louisville KY Literature
Meyer, J. 1990. Chrysler Herbarium Checklist. Manuscript NJ Literature
Mitchell, R.S. (ed.). 1986. A checklist of New York State plants. Contributions of a Flora of New York State, Checklist III. New York State Bulletin No. 458. New York State Museum, Albany NY Literature
Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois, rev. ed. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville IL Literature
Mohr., C. 1901. Plant life of Alabama. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium VI AL Literature
NMC. Specimen at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, (http://biology-web.nmsu.edu/herbarium/). NM Specimen
Nevada Administrative Code. Control of insects, pests, and noxious weeds (http://www.leg.state.nv.us/NAC/NAC-555.html, 20 October 2003). State of Nevada, Nevada Literature
New York Flora Association. 1990. Preliminary vouchered atlas of New York State flora, ed. 1. New York State Museum Institute, Albany NY Literature
Office of the Director/Secretary. New Mexico noxious weed list (http://nmdaweb.nmsu.edu/DIVISIONS/APR/weed.html, 20 October 2003). New Mexico Department of Agriculture, New Mexico Literature
Oklahoma House of Representatives. House Bill 2277 (http://www2.lsb.state.ok.us/os/os%5F2%2D3%2D220.rtf, 20 October 2003). State of Oklahoma, Oklahoma Literature
Oregon Administrative Rules. Quarantine; noxious weeds, Chapter 603-52-1200 (http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/docs/pdf/603_052_1200.pdf, 24 May 2006). State of Oregon, Oregon Literature
Oregon Department of Agriculture. Noxious weed policy and classification system (http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/WEEDS/lists.shtml#Noxious_weed_policy___list, 24 May 2006). Oregon Department of Agriculture, Oregon Literature
Oregon Flora Project species list; species noted on herbarium specimens. Unpublished and undated OR Literature
Ownbey, G.B., and T. Morley. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: A checklist and atlas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis MN Literature
Peck, M.E. 1961. A manual of the higher plants of Oregon, 2nd ed. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis OR Literature
Plant Industry Division. Rules pertaining to the administration and enforcement of the Colorado Noxious Weed Act (http://www.ag.state.co.us/CSD/Weeds/statutes/weedrules.pdf, 23 January 2006). Colorado Department of Agriculture, Colorado Literature
Plant Services Division. Prohibited, regulated and restricted noxious weeds (http://www.azda.gov/PSD/quarantine5.htm, 1 May 2006). Arizona Department of Agriculture, Arizona Literature
Rader, Linda. Personal communication WV Literature
Revised Statues of Missouri. Insect pests and weeds (http://www.moga.state.mo.us/STATUTES/C263.htm, 20 October 2003). Missouri Department of Agriculture, Missouri Literature
Rhoads, A.F., and W.M. Klein, Jr. 1993. The vascular flora of Pennsylvania. Annotated checklist and atlas. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia PA Literature
SRP. Specimen at Boise State University, Boise, Idaho, (http://www.boisestate.edu/biology/facilities_and_collections.htm#thyme). ID Specimen
Shultz, Leila M. Personal communication UT Literature
Sorrie, B.A. 1992. County checklist of Massachusetts plants. Unpublished MA Literature
Southern Weed Science Society. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society, Champaign, Illinois Literature
Specimen Management System for California Herbaria (SMASCH) (http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/www_apps/smasch/) CA Literature
Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe,and M.R. Bolick. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Lincoln, Nebraska Literature
Tatnall, R.R. 1946. Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore. Society of Natural History of Delaware, Lancaster DE Literature
Turner, B.L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, and O. Doron. 2003. Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas, vol. 1. Sida, Botanical Miscellany, No. 24. Botanical Research Institute of Texas Press, Fort Worth TX Literature
Utah Department of Agriculture. Utah noxious weed act (http://ag.utah.gov/plantind/nox_utah.html, 20 October 2003). Utah Department of Agriculture, Utah Literature
Voss, E.G. 1985. Michigan flora. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills MI Literature
WS. Specimen at Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, (http://www.wsu.edu/~wsherb/). WA Specimen
WTU. Specimen at University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, (http://www.washington.edu/burkemuseum/collections/herbarium/index.php). WA Specimen
Washington Administrative Code. Noxious weed control, Chapter 16-752 (http://apps.leg.wa.gov/wac/default.aspx?cite=16-752, 24 May 2006). State of Washington, Washington Literature
Washington Administrative Code. State noxious weed list and schedule of monetary penalties, Chapter 16-750 (http://apps.leg.wa.gov/WAC/default.aspx?cite=16-750, 24 May 2006). State of Washington, Washington Literature
Weber, W.R., and W.T. Corcoran. 1993. Atlas of Missouri vascular plants. Unpublished. Southwest Missouri State University and the Missouri Native Plant Society MO Literature
Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, L.C. Higgins, and S. Goodrich. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 9. Brigham Young University Press, Provo UT Literature
West Virginia county level data WV Literature
Wherry, E.T., J.M. Fogg, and H.A. Wahl. 1979. Atlas of the flora of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum, Philadelphia PA Literature
Whitson, T.D. (ed.) et al. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with Cooperative Extension Services, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming Literature
Wilken, Dieter. Personal communication CA Literature
Wisconsin vascular plants (http://www.botany.wisc.edu/herbarium). Wisconsin State Herbarium: University of Wisconsin - Madison WI Literature
Wunderlin, R.P., B.F. Hansen,and E.L. Bridges. 1996. Atlas of Florida vascular plants: CD-ROM. University of South Florida, Tampa FL Literature
Wunderlin, R.P., and B.F. Hansen. 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (http://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu) [online: accessed on 8 November 2014]. Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL FL Literature
Wyoming Department of Agriculture. Designated noxious weeds and prohibited noxious weeds (http://www.wyoweed.org/docs/designated_weeds_pests.html, 20 October 2003). Wyoming Department of Agriculture, Wyoming Literature
Yatskievych, G., and J. Turner. 1990. Catalogue of the flora of Missouri. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 37. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis MO Literature
 
 
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