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Oenothera biennis L.
Common evening primrose



General Information
Symbol: OEBI
Group: Dicot
Family: Onagraceae
Duration: Biennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb
Native Status: CAN   N
L48   N
Characteristics
Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
Alabama"Arkansas"California"Connecticut"Delaware"DistrictFlorida"Georgia"Illinois"Indiana"Iowa"Kansas"Kentucky"Louisiana"Maine"Massachusetts"Michigan"Minnesota"Mississippi"Missouri"Montana"Nebraska"Nevada"NewNewNewNewNorthNorthOhio"Oklahoma"Oregon"Pennsylvania"SouthSouthTennessee"Texas"Vermont"Virginia"Washington"WestWisconsin"
Nativity Map
blue native legend Native gray introduced legend Introduced blank legend Absent/Unreported

See U.S. county distributions (when available) by clicking on the map or the linked states below:

USA (AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV), CAN (AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK)

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
OEBIC Oenothera biennis L. ssp. caeciarum Munz
OEMU2 Oenothera muricata L.
OEBIP Oenothera biennis L. var. pycnocarpa (Atk. & Bartlett) Wiegand
OEPY2 Oenothera pycnocarpa Atk. & Bartlett
OEBIC3 Oenothera biennis L. ssp. centralis Munz

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Myrtales
Family Onagraceae – Evening Primrose family
Genus Oenothera L. – evening primrose
Species Oenothera biennis L. – common evening primrose

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

U.S. Weed Information
Oenothera biennis
common evening primrose
hoary eveningprimrose
This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S.
KY Haragan, P.D.. 1991. Weeds of Kentucky and adjacent states: a field guide. The University Press of Kentucky. Lexington, Kentucky.
NE&GP Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska.
SWSS Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Top Level Regions
Arid West FACU
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FACU
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FACU
Great Plains FACU
Hawaii FACU
Midwest FACU
Northcentral & Northeast FACU
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FACU

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Miller Minor Low

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Miller

Sources

Miller, J.H., and K.V. Miller. 1999. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. Southern Weed Science Society.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover