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Echinochloa frumentacea Link
billion-dollar grass

General Information
Symbol: ECFR
Group: Monocot
Family: Poaceae
Duration: Annual
Growth Habit: Graminoid
Native Status: CAN   I
L48   I
Fact Sheet (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   


click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Echinochloa thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Hitchcock, A.S. (rev. A. Chase). 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States. USDA Miscellaneous Publication No. 200. Washington, DC. 1950. Usage Requirements.



Symbol Scientific Name
ECCRE2 Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. subsp. edulis Hitchc.
ECCRF Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. var. frumentacea (Roxb.) W. Wight
PAFR4 Panicum frumentaceum Roxb., non Salisb.


Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons
Subclass Commelinidae
Order Cyperales
Family Poaceae ⁄ Gramineae – Grass family
Genus Echinochloa P. Beauv. – cockspur grass
Species Echinochloa frumentacea Link – billion-dollar grass

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

North America
Arid West UPL
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain UPL
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont UPL
Great Plains UPL
Midwest FACW
Northcentral & Northeast FAC
Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast FAC



Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds
Yarrow Moderate Moderate


Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds


Yarrow, G.K., and D.T. Yarrow. 1999. Managing wildlife. Sweet Water Press. Birmingham.

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover
High Average 25-50% of diet Regular source of cover
Low 5-10% of diet Infrequently used as cover
Minor 2-5% of diet Sparsely used as cover
Moderate Average 10-25% of diet Occasional source of cover